SCENAR technology relies on the body’s mechanism of adaptation ensuring dynamic equilibrium and homeostasis. Regulation of the body’s vital functions is achieved through close connection and interaction of the nervous and endocrine systems.
The effects of these systems result in the release of biologically active chemical modulators, called neuromediators. Examples of these neuromediators are:
The neuropeptides in SCENAR therapy, are the most important chemical modulators. Neuropeptide-producing nerve fibres make up more than 70% of the body’s neural tracts and can therefore be stimulated from many areas on the skin.
The main goal of SCENAR therapy is to induce the secretion of a sufficient amount of neuropeptides to relieve pain and initiate a healing sequence [i]. This is achieved by active feedback mechanisms, bipolar electrical impulses and individually dosed influence which are discussed below.
The most unique characteristic of SCENAR is that it can induce changes in the parameters of its impulse automatically and in accordance with the body’s response to the device. While conventional therapeutic devices are passive, SCENAR involves active reflex biofeedback, which means that the device communicates actively with the processes that are happening in the body. The SCENAR device does this by monitoring the skin’s impedance and then changes the electrical impulse it emits accordingly. Therefore active reflex biofeedback means that maximal therapeutic effectiveness can be achieved[ii].
The characteristics of the SCENAR impulse are such that the probability of excitation of the thin neuropeptide-secreting neural fibres is higher than conventional methods of electrotherapy[iii] [iv] [v][vi] . SCENAR enables a maximal part of the nervous tissue to be activated – especially the small nociceptive fibres which have a higher threshold of excitation[vii]. This is necessary for the achievement of an optimal response from the patient’s body with regard to the neuropeptide release. Furthermore, SCENAR is a system of monitoring and response. The body creates electromagnetic and acoustic fields[viii]. In a pathological state these fields are modified. It is these signals that are detected by SCENAR and are used to form the therapeutic impulses. SCENAR therefore enables a unique interaction between device and the patient’s body.
The electrical signals generated by the SCENAR device are similar in form to the body’s own endogenous neurological impulses[ix]. In this way the body does not recognize them as foreign or invasive, therefore negative side effects as a result of the therapy are rare. And the high initial impulse stimulates neuropeptide release from C-fibres more easily than low amplitude stimulation[x] [xi].
An important and unique characteristic of SCENAR is that it is independent of any other devices. It is physically controlled by a trained practitioner who observes the treatment process and ensures the device’s function [xii].In this way the patient, the device and the practitioner create a ‘treatment triangle’. This treatment triangle is essential for correcting the disturbed function of the body and for modifying the adaptive reactions of the body, resulting in the restoration of homeostasis.
SCENAR can be used regardless of the type of diagnosis and is therefore a non-specific approach which, however, depends highly on the ability and the speed of the patient’s body to react to the SCENAR signal. As mentioned before the device measures the skin impedance and its changes in regular intervals, which is displayed on the LCD screen (as the IR or ‘initial reaction’). The device also calculates the estimated total impedance change at the area under the electrode. When a certain percentage of the total impedance change is achieved the device indicates that with an audible ‘dose signal’ and a reading on the LCD screen. The time of reaching a ‘dose’ can be between a few seconds up to 15 minutes – depending on how well the patient reacts to the SCENAR signal. However, it must be noted that the optimum therapeutic results are always dependent upon the body’s response and is therefore individual to each patient [xiii]. As the SCENAR device monitors and evaluates treatment results, it independently delivers the correct impulse without the possibility of overdosing and hence causing little or no side effects.
Clinical experience with this device has further indicated that the optimal therapeutic effect is achieved when there is a maximal variability of the impulse during treatment [xiv] [xv].
SCENAR therapy can be applied to the point of pain (POP) with sticky pads applied onto the skin. However in most treatments, the SCENAR device is moved across the skin of the patient.
The use of SCENAR is governed by the primary and secondary signs of the patient’s body. The primary signs refer to the patient’s complaints or discomforts. These can include pain, swelling and loss of sensation. Other primary signs are wounds, rashes, ulcers, scars and discoloration observed on the skin prior to SCENAR treatment. The secondary signs are observations made during treatment. They are the patient’s response to treatment and can indicate the areas that are most sensitive to SCENAR treatment. Such effects can be any localized changes taking place during or immediately following treatment. These effects can be observed in the area directly being treated or in other areas of the body. Secondary signs can also be observed emanating directly from the device or as a result of contact with the patient and can include the appearance (or disappearance) of a humming sound, the presence of ‘stickiness’, or smoother movement of the electrode over the skin. This means that these zones may require a longer treatment time.
A planned treatment course, which is a pre-set algorithm aimed at stimulating the body to deploy its own healing mechanisms, consists of ‘General’, ‘Local’ and ‘Additional Zones’. Local Zones are the surface projections of affected organs where the primary signs are observed. Treatment of the Local Zones restores any disruptions between the affected organ and the body’s regulatory systems.
General Zones influence the regulation centres[xvi] and aid in achieving the shortest path to homeostasis. Treating the General Zones in any complaint or condition usually achieves a good result hence these zones are treated in every session of the treatment course. The General Zones include the spinal pathways (the 3 Pathways and 6 Points), the neck and shoulder area (the collar zone), the abdomen and the ‘Palm’ (gynaecological zone)[xvii]. Additional Zones are those responsible for the function of major blood vessels, lymph nodes, the liver, adrenal glands, ovaries, scrotum, tongue, ears and immune system sensitive zones.
For patients who have numerous health complaints, the treatment begins with SCENAR treatment of General Zones and then progresses to Local Zones where primary areas are treated as well as any secondary effects of these areas. If pain is localized to a single area then treatment starts at the Local Zone followed by General Zones and then Additional zones.
Further treatment can be performed on the area of pain after the initial treatment. This can take place up to several times per day (with a minimum of two hours between each session), particularly if new complaints arise.
As mentioned earlier, SCENAR uses active reflex biofeedback as a way of virtually communicating with the body, detecting the impulses the body emits and continually modifying the signal that the SCENAR device applies. During this interaction the SCENAR device may come across ‘active points’.
: Active points are areas where it is believed that the cells and tissues of the body respond more actively than others. This can be detected by the practitioner when the device becomes ‘sticky’ on the skin or by digital readings on the SCENAR device if using ‘Dosing’ or “Screening” modes. The sensation of ‘stickiness’ implies that the practitioner will sense that the device feels as if it is magnetically attracted to the skin when dragged across it. This can cause reddening, numbness or increased sensitivity of the skin.
SCENAR therapy protocols include rating of pain, measurement of range of movement and testing of movement related to functional impairment.
The methodologies of many traditional healing practices such as acupuncture and acupressure are based on the fact that the skin and nervous system have the same embryological origin[xviii]. The skin, which is a large sensory organ, remains linked throughout adulthood to the nervous system. Stimulating nerve endings within the skin at particular points effect changes in internal organs[xix]. Similarly, stimulating active points on the skin via electrical impulses which follow the characteristics of those of the central nervous system are known to stimulate and optimize the regulatory functions of the nervous system restoring health[xx].
SCENAR, which is a form of therapeutic electrotherapy delivered via the skin, produces both local effects [xxi] [xxii] (by stimulating the skin, muscle and blood vessels) as well as general influence effects (by influencing nervous and endocrine systems)[xxiii].]. It is further known that the pattern of SCENAR impulses stimulates neural pathways via active points in the skin in an effort to restore and to improve the function of the disease-affected organs and tissues [xxiv].
[i] Grinberg J: SCENAR-Therapy and SCENAR-Diagnostics. RITM OKB ZAO, Petrovskaya 99, Taganrog 347900, Russian Federation
[ii] Grinberg Y: Biofeedback, Expertise and Future Aspects of Scenar-diagnostics Development. Scenar-therapy and Scenar-expertise: Collection of articles. Issue 8, Taganrog, 2002, pp. 7-12
[iii] Tarakanov AV: The Scenar Impulse. Presentation at the SCENAR Conference, October 2012, Katoomba, Australia
[iv] Somers DL, Clemente FR: Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation for the management of neuropathic pain: The effects of frequency and electrode position on prevention of allodynia in a rat model of complex regional pain syndrome type II. Physical Therapy. 2006 May; 86(5): 698-709.
[v] Han J S: Acupuncture: neuropeptide release produced by electrical stimulation of different frequencies. Trends in Neurosciences, 2003 January; 26(1).
[vi] Hamza MA, White PF, Ahmed HE, Ghoname EA: Effect of the frequency of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on the postoperative opioid analgesic requirement and recovery profile. Anesthesiology. 1999 Nov; 91(5): 1232-8.
[vii] Heidland A et al.: Neuromuscular electro stimulation techniques: historical aspects and current possibilities in treatment of pain and muscle wasting. Clinical Nephrology,Vol. 79 – No. Suppl. 1/2013, p12-23
[viii] Grinberg Y: Physical Influencing Factors in SCENAR-therapy. Application Sound Therapy. Southern Federal University Bulletin. “Technical Science” Journal, Vol 99, Issue 10, 2009, pp. 123-128
[ix] Ukanafov M.: SCENAR efficiency. Presentation SCENAR Conference October 2012 in Katoomba Australia
[x] Johnson M: Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS). Published Online: 15 OCT 2012 DOI: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0024044
[xi] Grinberg Y: Effectiveness of SCENAR-therapy. Physiological aspects. Scenar-therapy and Scenar-expertise: Collection of articles. Issue 4, 1998. Published in online SCENAR Therapy Library, RITM OKB ZAO
[xii] Mortensen C: Professional RITM SCENAR Training, Level I, II & III; Ritm SCENAR Institute, Australia 2011
[xiii] Grinberg Y: SCENAR Technology. Scenar-therapy and Scenar-expertise: Collection of articles. Issue 5, Taganrog, 1999, pp. 7-14
[xiv] Melzack R: Prolonged relief of pain by brief, intense transcutaneous somatic stimulation. Pain. 1975; 1: 357-373.
[xv] DeSantana JM, Santana-Filho VJ, Sluka KA: Modulation between high- and low-frequency Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation delays the development of analgesic tolerance in arthritic rats. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2008 April; 89(4): 754-760.
[xvi] Tarakanova TD, Lebedenko AA, Tarakanov AV: Role of Autonomic Dysfunction Syndrome SCENAR-Therapy in various Somatic Pathology. RITM OKB ZAO Petrovskaya 99,Taganrog 347900, Russian Federation
[xvii] Tarakanov AV: SCENAR Treatment Zone Location. Presentation SCENAR Conference 2012, Katoomba Australia.
[xviii] Cabioglu MT & Eren Cetin B: Acupuncture and Immunomodulation. The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Vol. 36, No. 1, 25–36 © 2008 World Scientific Publishing Company
[xix] Wancura-Kampik I: Segmental Anatomy. Urban & Fischer (September 24, 2012)
[xx] Zhang X, Acting Coordinator Traditional Medicine (TRM), Department of Essential Drugs and Medicines Policy (EDM), World Health Organization: Acupuncture: Review and Analysis of Reports on Controlled Clinical Trials.
[xxi] Walsh DM, Howe TE, Johnson MI, Moran F, Sluka KA: Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for acute pain. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2009, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD006142. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006142.pub2.
[xxii] Nnoaham KE, Kumbang J: Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for chronic pain. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2008, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD003222. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003222.pub2.
[xxiii] Tarakanov AV: SCENAR Treatment of Injuries. Presentation SCENAR Conference October 2012 in Katoomba, Australia.
[xxiv] Wirkstroem SO, Svedman P, Svensson H, Tanweer AS: Effect of transcutaneous nerve stimulation on microcirculation in intact skin and blister wounds in healthy volunteers. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg Hand Surg 1999, 33: 195-201